The War of 1812 has been called the “second war of American independence”. Is this a fair description?
(a) To indicate the exact source of every quotation used.
(b) To acknowledge indebtedness to others for opinions or ideas.
(c) To show the source of factual details.
(d) To give authority for a fact that the reader might be inclined to doubt. (Naturally no
note is required for facts that may be regarded as matters of common knowledge and that are
generally accepted as true.)
(e) To give other material that, if it were included in the essay itself, would interrupt the
main current of thought.
2. Notes at the bottom of the page (“footnotes”) are convenient for the reader, but the alternative
of presenting all notes on a separate page at the end of the paper (“endnotes”) is also acceptable.
When a work is first cited the note should include the author; the full title; the place, publisher,
and date of publication; the volume number; and the page reference.
3. If the author and title of the work are fully included in the body of the paper, only the
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remaining information–that is, place and date of publication and page reference–need be cited in
4. Because notes are not arranged alphabetically by author there is no need to invert the author’s
names. The title page of the work dictates whether the author’s given names or his initials are to
5. If a work is cited more than once on the same page, and if its references are consecutive, then
the term Ibid. (from the Latin ibidem meaning “in the same place”) is used, followed by the page
6. If a work is cited more than once but there is an intervening citation, then the author’s
surname, the title in abbreviated form, and the page number must be cited.
7. Commas, not periods, are used in the note because the whole note is regarded as an elliptical sentence. A period ends a note on all occasions.
8. Notes should be numbered consecutively throughout the paper